Critical appraisal

A process to find valid and relevant evidence or methods in a systematic review or HTA. Evidence is considered using a system of agreed rules to check its quality and decide if it should be included in the HTA or not. For example, evidence from a particular study may...

Cost-utility analysis

A study similar to a cost‐effectiveness analysis. The costs are measured in units of money and the benefits are stated in a value that reflects patient preferences (known as utilities), such as a quality‐adjusted life year. HTAI

Cost effectiveness analysis

This analysis compares two or more drugs, devices, tests, or procedures to find out which provides more outcomes for the cost of treatment or which has the lowest cost for a given outcome. This means that the outcomes of all treatments being compared must be measured...


The medicine or treatment currently being used which the new medicine or treatment is being compared to in an assessment. If the new medicine or treatment is recommended for the PBS the comparator will usually be replaced by the new treatment.

Clinically significant

A benefit from treatment that relates to an important outcome, such as length of life, and is large enough to have practical importance to patients and health professionals. Effects that are identified as statistically significant are not always clinically...

Clinical Trials Network

Groups of practicing clinician researchers (often several 100 per network) that come together to identify important clinical questions and design large multi-centre clinical trials to answer them. Some also conduct trials with industry but the majority have a strong...

Clinical trial

A study to determine whether a treatment is safe and effective. It is carried out with a sample of intended patients, usually after laboratory studies and studies with healthy volunteers have been conducted. The trial is set up to answer one or more questions. For...

Confidence Interval

There is always some uncertainty in research. This is because a small group of patients (called the sample) is studied to predict the effects in the wider population who may eventually use the treatment. The confidence interval (CI) shows the amount of uncertainty. It...

Cost Benefit Analysis

This analysis is a method of considering the advantages and disadvantages of alternative health care technologies. The scope of the advantages and disadvantages considered in an analysis depends on the perspective taken. Cost‐benefit analysis differs from other forms...

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