The likelihood that an event will occur. In statistics, the probability (or P‐value) shows the likelihood that a research result could have occurred by chance alone. For example, a P‐value of 0.05 means there is a five in 100 chance that the effect observed in the...

Primary outcome

The result(s) of most interest to the researchers. A test or treatment can give results for several outcomes, but primary outcomes are of greatest importance when assessing the outcome.  HTAI


How common a disease or condition is within a population either at a point in time or over a given period of time (it includes new and existing cases). For example, in 2007, the prevalence of diabetes in Scottish heath boards varied from 3.7% to 4.6%.  HTAI


A group of people with a common link, such as the same medical condition or living in the same area or sharing the same characteristics. The population for a clinical trial is all the people whom the test or treatment is designed to help (such as adults with diabetes,...

Protheses List

Under the authority of the Private Health Insurance Act 2007, a listing of the prostheses that private health insurers must fund and the benefits payable for them. CoA

phase I, II, III and IV studies

Different phases of clinical trials that are run to develop a new test or treatment, such as a drug. Phase I (one) involves using healthy human volunteers to check the safety of the test or treatment. In phases II–IV (two to four), patients with the disease that the...

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

Under the authority of the National Health Act 1953, a listing and description of the medicines that are subsidised by the Australian Government, the amount of that subsidy and any conditions applying to the use of that medicine. PBS

Patient reported outcome measures

A measurement based on a report that comes directly from the patient (i.e., study subject) about the status of a patient’s health condition without amendment or interpretation of the patient’s response by a clinician or anyone else. PROM is the instrument or tool,...

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